Cleanroom foggers, clean room foggers, DI water foggers for smoke studiesDi Water Fogger title=

Applied Physics, Inc.

Clean Room Fogger, CRF4

Ultrapure Nitrogen Fogger, AP35


Calibration Wafer Standards

PSL Wafer Standard

Contamination Wafer Standards

Particle Wafer Standards

Cleanroom Fogger, CRF2

LN2 Nitrogen Fogger

PSL Spheres, Polystyrene Latex Beads

Silica Nanoparticles in DIH2O, 15ml or 100ml volume

Smoke Studies to Visualize Airflow and Turbulence

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1-720-635-3931 or 303-999-6837

CRF2 and CRF4 DI Water Fogger for Smoke Studies

DI Water Fogger, CRF2 and CRF4

The CRF4 and CRF2 are portable clean room foggers using DI water or WFI water to generate pure fog to visualize airflow patterns, turbulence in smoke studies of ISO suites, Bio-Safety Cabinets, RAB, medical rooms. The CRF4 and CRF2 support guidelines for USP 797 Pharmaceutical In-situ airflow analysis, Federal Standards 209E and its replacement ISO Standard 1446, proposed USP 800 Hazardous Drug Compounding, Airflow tests supporting ISO 14644-3 Annex B7, Airflow Recovery Tests of ISO 14644-3 Annex B12, NSF Standard 49 and National Sanitation Foundation. The CRF4 fogger is a higher volume fogger providing excellent, specified performance and is nearly equal in fog performance to LN2 foggers. The CRF4 out performs foggers designed to look good, but lacking in fog performance. The CRF2 fogger is designed as a low cost fogger.

Click here for CRF4 DI Water Fogger video

CRF4 Clean Room Fogger
  • CRF4 provides 35 ultrasonic devices producing 1.25 cubic meters of fog / minute for 45 minutes
  • Easy Fill Water Port
  • CRF4 Portable Fogger provides a Carry Handle for operator convenience
  • Standard Wireless Remote Control to operate fogger behind a closed area, included as standard
  • Adjustable Fog Volume - adjust for lower fog volume and longer operation cycle
  • Adjustable Fog airflow to match your clean room dynamics
  • Stainless Steel enclosure to provide strength and reliability, easy wipe down
  • Transducer life: 5,000 hours
  • 80 mm Diameter fog hose with 5 meter length is standard
  • 120VAC or 220VAC operation
  • Easy to use with fast set up and instant On/Off fog
  • Optional 1.3 Meter Fog Curtain Wand that plugs into Fog Hose
  • Optional Rolling Carry Case for CRF4 storage and transport
  • Optional LED Light and Diffuser to provide high contrast between fog and background
  • Optional Y Adaptor to provide two fog hose inputs from the CRF4 into your clean area
  • Optional T Adaptor to connect two fog wands to provide an extra wide visible fog pattern
  • Optional 250 mm Fog Nozzle to direct heavy concentration of fog into desired area
  • Optional 500 mm Fog Nozzle to direct broad, heavy concentration of fog into desired area

Click here for CRF2 DI Water Fogger video

DI Water Fogger
    • CRF2 provides 9 ultrasonic piezo devices producing 0.26 cubic meters of fog per minute for 50 minutes
    • Easy Fill Water Port
    • CRF2 Portable Fogger provides a Carry Handle for operator convenience
    • Constant Fog Volume
    • Constant airflow
    • Polyethyelene enclosure to provide light weight enclosure, easy wipe down
    • Transducer life: 5,000 hours
    • 60 mm Diameter fog hose with 60 inch length is standard
    • 120VAC, 100VAC or 220VAC operation
    • Easy to use with fast set up and instant On/Off fog
    • Optional 22 inch Fog Curtain Wand that plugs into Fog Hose
    • Optional Rolling Carry Case for CRF2 storage and transport
    • Optional Cable Remote Control to operate fogger behind a closed area
CRF4 Clean Room Fogger

Clean Room DI Water Fogger used in Pharmaceutical ISO Suites and Semiconductor Clean Rooms

  • Airflow balancing
  • Leak detection in ducts
  • Cleanroom laminar flow tests
  • Wet bench exhaust optimization
  • Personal safety exhaust verification
  • Chemical process equipment ventilation tests
  • Pressure balancing between rooms and spaces
  • Visualization of airflow patterns and turbulence
  • Supports Recovery Test evaluation, 100:1 recovery time as defined in ISO 14644-3
  • Supports airflow visualization tests for ISO 14644-3 ANNEX B7
  • Supports airflow visualization for NSF Standard 49, National Sanitation Foundation
  • Supports airflow visualization tests for Pharmaceutical USP 797 guidelines
  • Supports proposed USP 800 Hazardous Drug Compounding guidelines
  • Supports airflow visualization tests for Federal Standards 209E for semiconductor clean rooms
clean room fogger
clean room fogger carry case   OPTIONAL Carrying Case
cleanroom fogger, carry case

Specifications, Portable Cleanroom Fogger, DI Water Fogger- Request a Quote

  CRF4 DI Water Fogger CRF2 DI Water Fogger
FOG Duration 45 minutes at full fog volume, 90 minutes at reduced volume 50 minutes
FOG Volume 1.25 cubic meters per minute using 35 piezo devices 0.26 cubic meters per minute using 9 piezo devices
Total FOG Volume 56.25 cubic meters of pure fog for 45 minutes 12.5 cubic meters for 50 minutes
Visible Fog Distances 10-15 feet 7-8 feet
FOG Type Pure Fog using DI Water or WFI Water Pure Fog using DI Water or WFI Water
Class of Clean Room Class 1 to 10,000 Class 1 to 10,000
Type of Room Clean Room, Sterile Room, ISO Suite, Medical Room Clean Room, Sterile Room, ISO Suite, Medical Room
Water capacity 10 liters 3.75 liters
Useable Water capacity 7.750 Liters
3.25 Liters
Liquid Weight 10 Kg 3.75 Kg
Power Requirements 115 VAC, 60 Hz, 14A 115 VAC, 60 Hz, 10A
Optional Power 230 VAC, 50 Hz, 10A 230 VAC, 50 Hz, 8A
Metric Dimensions, (H x W x D) 305 mm H x 330 mm W x 572 mm D 254 mm H x 227 mm W x 280 mm D
US Dimensions, (H x W x D) 12" H x 13" W x 22.5" D 10" H x 9" W x 11" D
Full Weight 22 kg (48 Lbs) 5.7 Kg (12.5 Lbs)


A portable DI Water Fogger is often referred to a smoke generator used in smoke studies. However, the fog output is a PURE, water vapor, FOG, not smoke! The phrases of Smoke Generator and Smoke Studies is often used by pharmaceutical and semiconductor facility staff to visualize the airflow and turbulence. Operating instructions are noted on the right panel of enclosure. The DI Water Fogger is used to visualize airflow, turbulence, airflow balance and patterns in clean rooms, ISO suites, bio safety cabinets. The DI Water Fogger supports ISO 14644-3, Annex B.7 Airflow Direction Test and Visualization; USP 797 Insitu Airflow Analysis and Semi-Standards Clean Room guidelines for airflow visualization and analysis.

Theory of Operation: Ultrasonic cavitation using DI water or Pharmaceutical Water for Injection, WFI Water. Use of any other liquids or chemicals will void the warranty.

The transducer life is ~5000 hours, which is protected from electrical damage when water level is too low. The water level sensor will interrupt the input voltage to the transducer module, should the water level drop to a low level to . This ensures long life and reliability.


  1. The clean room fog generated by this device contains microscopic droplets of DI water. AVOID USING IN IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES, WATER SENSITIVE PRODUCTS AND EQUIPMENT.
  2. The fan will operate with no water in the reservoir with the power switch in the ON position. This will aid in drying when the chamber is drained.
  3. To increase drain plug tension, remove the plug, rotate clockwise (CW) the front latch while holding the rear metal disk.
  4. The clean room fogger is intended to be used on a flat surface, on its feet. Tipping the fogger with water in the reservoir will damage the fogger. DO NOT OVERFILL OR TIP THE FOGGER.

Portable Fogger, CRF2 Cleanroom Fogger - Request a Quote

The CRF-2 provides portability using the carry handle on top of the fogger. While carrying the fogger in this manner, it is important not to slosh the water around inside the water chamber. Should you need to move the fogger while water is inside the water container, mover the fogger with slow movements, so that water does not splash inside the fogger.

Which Clean Room Fogger Is Best For Smoke Studies?

Cleanroom UltraPure Fogger, Adjustable 2-5 Cubic Meters per minute for up to 75 minutes with 20-30 feet visible distance.
  • When high fog purity, high fog volume and long visible airflow is needed
  • To visualizing airflow in large clean rooms, ceiling to floor
  • To fog exit velocity must not create turbulence
  • To needing to do 3D airflow modeling of airflow
  • When needing to do visualize airflow in larger cleanrooms
  • When 70 minutes of high purity fog duration is needed
  • When fog visibility of 20-30 feet distance is required
  • To fog Class 1 to Class 10,000 semiconductor, medical, pharmaceutical clean rooms

* Use Hand Gloves and Face Shield when filling LN2
Use 16M ohm DI water or WFI Pharmaceutical Water
CRF4 DI Water Fogger, 1.25 Cubic Meters per minute, 45 to 90 minutes Operation
  • When budget is lower, but you can't use LN2, yet you need high fog volume
  • When 45 minutes operation at maximum volume or 90 minutes at lower volume is desired
  • When fog visibility for 10-15 feet distance is desired
  • When fogging in enclosed areas needing a wireless remote control is desired
  • When adjustable fog volume and adjustable airflow is desired in clean rooms, sterile rooms and ISO suites
  • When fogging Class 1 or above in semiconductor and pharmaceutical clean rooms

CO2 Fogger, CO2 Ice and DiH2O Fogger, dense fog for about 5 minutes, decreasing as CO2 ice evaporates to zero, total 8-12 minute fog cycle, depending on volume of CO2 ice used.
  • When Fogging Hazardous areas, No Electrical Outlet Available
  • When fog visibility for 5-6 feet distance is acceptable
  • When 10 minutes of fog duration is useful
  • When fogging small areas
  • Class 10 or above in semiconductor or pharmaceutical clean rooms
  • When fogging work benches

Fogger Technology

The three types of foggers manufactured for use in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industry are described below.

Ultrapure LN2 Fogger: This type of smoke generator or clean room fogger provides the highest volume, density and purity of fog. Purity is created by bringing the water to a high temperature, creating a vapor, while simultaneously using gravity to remove the residual mass from the vapor. This process removes any bacterial agents and residual particulate matter from the vapor. The pure vapor is then passed over an LN2 bath, which naturally boils at room temperature. The water molecules bond with nitrogen molecules, creating a nominal 3um fog droplet. The volume of water and nitrogen molecules that combine is extremely high in quantity, creating a dense, high volume, ultrapure fog output with exit temperatures of about 78 degrees F with an exit pressure of less than 0.5 lbs, so as not to disturb the surrounding airflow. The fog is ultrapure leaving minimal, if any, trace particles behind. It evaporates to its gaseous hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components, which are natural to the Cleanroom environment. The high density of the fog increases the duration and travel distance of the fog. This fogger can be used in a Class 1 - 10,000 cleanroom environments of pharmaceutical and semiconductor facilities; such as sterile rooms, hospital rooms, medical rooms and cleanrooms.

DI Water Fogger: This type of fogger has less fog density (less capability to visualize airflow) than the UltraPure Fogger described above, but more density than the CO2 fogger described below. The DI water fog is generated by atomizing DI water into water droplets, which are nominally 3-10um in size. The water droplets may contain residual particulate matter remaining in the DI water, but this would be very trace amounts. If the facility manager operates a class 10 to Class 10000 Clean room, the use of a DI Water Fogger poses no problem. However, Cleanroom Engineers who manage facilities operating at Class 1 to Class 10 performance may desire to use an ultrapure fogger. Although some DI Water foggers are described as ultrapure, unless the DI water is vaporized to remove bacterial agents and residual particulate matter, the fog is not ultrapure. The 3-5lb output pressure of a DI water fogger also distorts the airflow patterns, thus adding to the turbulence. The temperature output is typically less than the surrounding room temperature, thus a fog generated from the atomized water droplets will sink momentarily in a typical 70 degree room temperature.

CO2 Fogger, CO2 Ice and DI Water: This type of smoke generator, CO2 Fogger, is designed for low volume, non-process critical applications such as bench airflow testing. The fog is created using CO2 ice as the fogging agent, combined with DI Water or WFI water. The fog is generated by evaporating CO2 ice with warm water and is ideal to visualize airflow and turbulence for short periods of time. The fog starts out with a large volume of fog at perhaps 10cfm, but as the CO2 ice evaporates, the fog volume then begins to decrease until no CO2 ice remains. The advantage of a CO2 fogger is the high initial density, making it useful for video applications; and the CO2 fogger is portable as it can be taken into a clean area with no power cords required during the fog process. The output starts at about 9-10cfm and slowly decreases to 0 CFM over a period of 8 - 12 minutes, depending on how much CO2 ice volume is placed in the warm water.

Smoke Sticks

Smoke Sticks are used in some Pharmaceutical Clean Rooms around the world. Below is a discussion on the use of smoke sticks used to visualize airflow and turbulence?

A smoke stick is often used visualize airflow turbulence, but smoke sticks are filled with particulates and chemicals. Smoke is created using chemical reactions; thus the smoke is SPUTTERING (sputter) or popping out of the smoke stick in a non-consistent pattern with velocity, but little volume. It is a particle smoke, compared to a visible, pure water based fog, thus smoke sticks are a contaminating smoke. The smoke stick generates an inconsistent flow or pattern of smoke, but it is low cost, which is why some managers allow use of smoke sticks in their Pharmaceutical clean rooms.

Compare a smoke stick to a Clean Room Fogger or an UltraPure LN2 fogger, both which produce a constant volume of fog with a consistent fog output and pure fog. Di Water foggers produce a consistent flow of visible water vapor, which enters the airflow to visualize the airflow patterns and turbulence, then begins to evaporate, returning back to the hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components that we breathe. No particulate contamination, no chemical contamination. Water based foggers produce a constant volume of fog at a constant rate, which provides consistent visualization of airflow patterns and turbulence. The Smoke Stick has to be waved around to see what kind of airflow pattern there is, while a Di Water fogger is simply placed in position and produces a flow of fog that can be directed 360 degrees to easily describe the airflow patterns and turbulence. In addition, tubes are now available to create "fog curtains", or a wall of fog, which smoke sticks can not produce.

How many smoke sticks are used per smoke cycle? How much labor is needed to clean up after smoke stick use. Do you need to Clean all the walls where the smoke stick was used. How did the chemical particulates and particles affect the process area? These are critical questions for a pharmaceutical manager. Did the contaminating particles and chemicals get into the drug process?

How much labor is used to cleanup after smoke stick use and if the cleanup did not get every chemical particle, then some smoke chemical material is added to the Pharma process or trapped in a filter somewhere, until it escapes into the Pharma process. That is a quality control issue for that company using smoke sticks.

The low labor cost of using smoke sticks is the reason facility managers may use smoke sticks, but are the chemical and particulate effects to the pharma process being analyzed? Non-contaminating fog does not emit particulates, requires less labor and does not contribute any unwanted chemicals to the Pharma process. A Di Water Fogger provides these advantages in fog volume, fog consistency and fog purity, which easily outweighs the low cost of smoke sticks, the high cost of labor for cleanup and the detrimental affects to quality control!

Smoke Sticks - quality side of the drug product: The smoke chemicals are not of the same chemistry as the drug product, thus smoke chemicals and particulates could migrate into the drug process. There is no guarantee the cleaning process removed all the unwanted particulates and chemicals, from for example, a glove box or isolation box. The chemicals and particulates eventually migrate to the air filter system, which is not 100% effective. If this is the case, the quality and purity of the drug process is affected. Drug quality is the basis of product credibility, which is a valuable asset in customer relations.

Smoke Sticks - labor side of the drug product: The smoke is generated by a chemical reaction, which causes the smoke to sputter into the environment. The smoke is inconsistent in volume, thus the smoke stick is unpredictable for airflow visualization. The chemicals migrate to equipment and walls, which then must be cleaned, and requires an added labor cost. The use of Smoke sticks generates an inefficient smoke, not a consistent fog.

A Di Water Fogger produces a water (H2O) droplet that evaporates back into hydrogen and oxygen, the air we breathe. No clean up is required, at all. No additional time delays and clean up labor is not required. The fog is consistent in volume and constant in output to describe the airflow patterns and turbulence. These are equipment, quality and application concerns to consider when the need for airflow visualization is considered.