Smoke Studies using a Cleanroom fogger, DI water fogger to visualize airflow and turbulence


Applied Physics, Inc.

Clean Room Fogger, CRF4

Ultrapure Nitrogen Fogger, AP35

Calibration Wafer Standards

PSL Wafer Standard

Contamination Wafer Standards

Particle Wafer Standards

Cleanroom Fogger, CRF2

LN2 Nitrogen Fogger

PSL Spheres, Polystyrene Latex Beads

Silica Nanoparticles in DIH2O, 15ml or 100ml volume

Smoke Studies to Visualize Airflow and Turbulence

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1-720-635-3931 or 303-999-6837


Clean Room Fogger, DI Water Fogger and Portable Fogger

The Cleanroom Fogger uses 9 ultrasonic devices to create 9 cubic feet per minute of pure fog to visualize airflow patterns and turbulence in smoke tests of ISO suites and semiconductor clean rooms. USP 797 In-situ Airflow Analysis is used as a guideline to visualize the turbulence. Airflow Recovery Tests using PSL spheres use ISO 14644-3, B-12. ISO suite testing uses ISO 14644-3 Annex B7 as guidleines. Semiconductor companies use Cleanroom Guidelines to guide smoke studies in IC fabs.

Cleanroom foggers can be compared in fog performance so that you can determine if you need a low cost fogger, a fog generator with adjustable fog controls, or a high fog volume smoke machine.

Fog volume is a primary requirement for a customer when purchasing a fogger. Fog density is usually unknown and not understood, but is the second most important reason for buying a fogger; as density controls the distance the airflow patterns and turbulence will be visible. To calculate fog density, find out the actual fill volume of the fogger and the actual operational time of the fogger. Ultrasonic foggers use an transducer assembly under water, which when powered generates fog vapor used to visualize airflow turbulence. Fog is also used to locate areas where there is minimal clean room air, called dead spots. Which ultrasonic fogger is the best for the money invested? Are you looking for a low cost cleanroom fogger with a constant fog volume? Or do you need a smoke machine that provides adjustable fog volume, adjustable airflow velocity and offers wireless remote control? The CRF2 fogger uses 3.75 liters and a single high output transducer assembly using 9 piezo devices. Fog density is 57ml per minute, which creates about 9 cubic feet per minute of fog during a typical 50 minutes of operation. The DI Water Fogger is a low cost device and typically used in fume hoods, airflow ducts and similar small areas.
The Cleanroom Fogger uses DI water or WFI water to produce a pure fog to visually describe airflow movement, imbalance and areas with poor air movement in semiconductor clean rooms, pharmaceutical ISO suites, bio-safety cabinets, compound pharmacies and medical rooms. This low cost, CRF2 fogger is used in Pharmaceutical fume hoods, flow hoods, glove boxes and similar small areas.

Cleanroom Fogger, DI Water producing 9cfm of Pure Fog per minute - Request a Quote

The Cleanroom Fogger, CRF-2, is used in smoke studies and often referred to as a smoke generator, which is used to model airflow movement and visualize airflow patterns and turbulence in clean rooms and pharmaceutical ISO 3, ISO 5, ISO 7 and ISO 9 suites. The CRF-2 provides instant on and instant off operation. Smoke studies are typically completed using USP or ISO guidelines.

Cleanroom Fogger, CRF-2 Features - Click here for Cleanroom Fogger Video

Cleanroom Fogger
  • 9 transducers converting DI Water or WFI water directly to 0.26 cubic meters of of pure fog for 50 minutes
  • Quick refill of Di Water or WFI water for continuous fog use
  • Easy to Fill 3.75 liters of DI water or WFI water
  • Visual Water Level Indicator provided
  • Hold Handle provides easy carry of tool
  • Polypropylene white enclosure is particulate free, no finger prints, less weight
  • Transducer life is 5000 hours
  • Fog Curtain Wand, optional, plugs into end of Fog Hose to create a wide fog wall, while reducing the fog velocity and maintain a constant 9cfm of fog output
  • 2.5" fog hose Diameter, which telescopes from 28 inches to 82 inches length
  • Fog Tube, power supply (120VAC or 220VAC) and 10 foot power cable provided
  • Easy to use, quick operation set up, instant On/Off fogging operation
  • Rolling Carry Case, optional, for carry and storage of Clean room Fogger
  • Remote Power Cable with ON/OFF switch to operate fogger behind closed walls or in a barrier isolator
  • Paperless operation - instructions and applications on the right side of the cleanroom fogger
cleanroom Fogger and fog curtain wand

Cleanroom Fogger, Pharmaceutical Suites, Semiconductor Clean Rooms

  • Supports 100:1 Airflow Recovery Test, as defined in ISO 14644-3, B12
  • Supports airflow visualization tests supporting ISO 14644-3, B7
  • Supports airflow visualization analysis, USP 797 Guidelines
  • Supports airflow tests, NSF 49 National Safety Foundation
  • Supports airflow visualization, USP 800 Hazardous Drug Compounding
  • Supports Semiconductor Semi-Standards Guidelines
  • Air flow and pressure balance between two clean areas
  • Leak detection of exhaust ducts
  • Barrier Isolator and laminar flow tests
  • Wet bench exhaust tests
  • Personal safety exhaust tests
  • Chemical process equipment, exhaust ventilation tests
cleanroom fogger
Carrying Case   OPTIONAL Carrying Case
Carrying Case 2

Specifications, Clean Room Fogger- Request a Quote

  CRF2 Clean Room Fogger
FOG Duration typical 50 minutes
FOG Volume typical 9 cubic feet / min
Total FOG Volume about 450 cubic feet of pure fog over 50 minute operation cycle
Visible Fog Distances typical 7-8 feet
FOG Type Pure Fog using DI Water or WFI Water
Class of Clean Room Class 1 to 10,000
Type of Room Air flow hood, vent hood, fume hood, glove box
Water capacity 3.75 liters
Useable Water capacity 3.25 Liters

Liquid Weight about 8 lb. Water
Power Requirements 115 VAC, 60 Hz, 14A
Optional Power 230 VAC, 50 Hz, 8A
Metric Dimensions, (H x W x D) 25.4cm x 22.9cm x 27.9cm
US Dimensions, (H x W x D) 10 inches x 9 inches x 11 inches
Full Weight 7.7 kg (17LBs.)


The CRF2 CleanRoom Fogger is used in smoke studies as a smoke generator. It is a low cost device providing excellent volumes of fog in smoke studies. It provides a lower weight using a polypropylene enclosure, as compared to stainless steel enclosures. Operation instructions are located on the right panel, so there is no paper paper manuals used in the pharmaceutical ISO 9 suites, laboratory or clean room.

Theory of Operation: Ultrasonic cavitation and DI water or Pharmaceutical WFI Water. Use of any other liquids or chemicals voids the warranty.

The transducer life is ~5,000 hours. To protect the transducers from damage there is a level sensor that will interrupt the input voltage to the transducer module, should the water level drop to a low level. This ensures long life and reliability.


  1. The fog generated by this device contains microscopic droplets of DI water. AVOID USING IN IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES, WATER SENSITIVE PRODUCTS AND EQUIPMENT.
  2. The fan will operate with no water in the reservoir with the power switch in the ON position. This will aid in drying when the chamber is drained.
  3. To increase drain plug tension, remove the plug, rotate clockwise (CW) the front latch while holding the rear metal disk.
  4. The CRF-2 is intended to be used on a flat surface, on its feet. Tipping the fogger with water in the reservoir will damage the fogger. DO NOT OVERFILL OR TIP THE FOGGER.

Which Clean Room Fogger or Smoke Generator Is Best For Smoke Studies?

AP35 UltraPure Fogger, 5 Cubic Meters per minute for 70 minutes with 20-30 feet visible distance.
  • When ultrapure fog purity with high volume of fog and long visible airflow is needed
  • To visualizing airflow in large clean rooms, ceiling to floor
  • To fog exit velocity must not create turbulence
  • To needing to do 3D airflow modeling of airflow
  • When needing to do visualize airflow in larger cleanrooms
  • When 70 minutes of high purity fog duration is needed
  • When fog visibility of 20-30 feet distance is required
  • To fog Class 1 to Class 10,000 semiconductor, medical, pharmaceutical clean rooms

AP100 LN2 UltraPure Fogger, 15.5 Cubic Meters fog per minute for 70 minutes with 30-40 feet visible distance.
  • When ultrapure fog is needed to support large clean rooms
  • Four Fog hoses and two water heaters are provided to disperse 15.5 cubic meters fog per minute
  • High levels of fog density to visualize airflow for 30-40 feet
  • For 3D airflow modeling of ISO suites, sterile rooms, clean rooms
  • 9 Accessories available to configure the AP100 to your clean rooms
  • Fog large hallways and large clean areas
  • Fog for longer distances of 30-40 feet
  • Supports ISO 14644-3 and USP 797 airflow guidelines for your smoke study
* Use Hand Gloves and Face Shield when filling LN2
Use 16 Megohm DI water or WFI Pharmaceutical Water
Clean Room Fogger, 9cfm, 50 minutes Operation
  • When budget is lower, basic Fogger OK, minimal output turbulence
  • When 50 minutes of fog duration is useful with quick turnaround
  • When fog visibility for 7-8 feet distance is acceptable
  • When fogging gray areas behind the cleanroom
  • When fogging ≥ Class 10 or above in semiconductor or pharmaceutical clean rooms

CO2 Fogger, Vapor DiH2O Fogger, average 4cfm over 10 minutes
  • When Fogging Hazardous areas, No Electrical Outlet Available
  • When fog visibility for 5-6 feet distance is acceptable
  • When 10 minutes of fog duration is useful
  • When fogging small areas
  • Class 10 or above in semiconductor or pharmaceutical clean rooms
  • When fogging work benches
16 Meg ohm DI water is standard
Do not permit DI Water to go stagnant in the chamber
** Use gloves when handling CO2 ice

Fogger Technology

The three types of foggers manufactured for use in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industry are described below.

Ultrapure LN2 Fogger: LN2 foggers use liquid nitrogen and DI Water or WFI water, providing the highest fog volume, highest fog density and best level of fog purity fog. Fog purity is allowing the LN2 to boil, while heating the water. nitrogen and water molecules form and combine at high rates to create a fog vapor. This process removes any bacterial agents and residual particulate matter from the water vapor. The volume of fog produced depends on the version of LN2 fogger purchased. The AP35 Ultrapure Fogger converts 571 ml of water per minute, a high fog density, which generates 5 cubic meters of fog for about 70 minutes to visualize airflow for 20-30 feet. The AP100 LN2 Fogger converts 1520 ml of water per minute, a very high fog density, to produce 15.5 cubic meters of ultrapure fog for about 70 minutes visualizing air flow for about 30-40 feet using 4 fog outputs. The fog is ultrapure leaving minimal, if any, trace particles behind. It evaporates to its gaseous hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components, which are natural to the cleanroom environment. LN2 foggers are used in a Class 1 - 10,000 clean rooms.

DI Water Fogger: This type of fogger has less fog density (less capability to visualize airflow) than the LN2 ultrapure foggers described above. But a DI Water Fogger has more fog density than the CO2 fogger described below. The DI water fog is generated by cavitation in water, producing a water vapor of 8-10 microns in diameter. If the facility manager operates a class 10 to Class 10000 Clean room, the use of a DI Water Fogger poses no problem. However, Cleanroom Engineers who manage facilities operating at Class 1 to Class 10 performance may desire to use an ultrapure fogger. Although some DI Water foggers are described as ultrapure, but unless the DI water is heated or boiled to remove bacterial agents, the fog is not ultrapure. The 2-3 lb output pressure of a DI water fogger may also distort the airflow patterns. The temperature output is typically less than the surrounding room temperature, thus a fog generated from an ultrasonic fogger will sink momentarily in a typical 70 degree room temperature.

CO2 Fogger: This type of CO2 Smoke Generator produces an excellent volume of fog during the first minute, then begins to lose fog volume and fog den sity as the CO2 ice evaporates. CO2 fogger is used for low volume, non-process critical applications such as bench airflow testing. The fog is created using CO2 ice as the fogging agent. The fog contains elements of the CO2 and the user must determine if the residual CO2 components are acceptable in a process environment operating Class 100 to Class 10,000. The 2-3 lb output pressure of a CO2 fogger also distorts the airflow patterns, thus adding to the turbulence. The output starts at about 3cfm and slowly decreases to 0 CFM in about 10 - 12 minutes.